T21N - Article Section

Deutsche Version

Article: 2016-04
Article name: Cooperative Translation in Virtual Seminars: Patent Translation as a Case Study
Author: Carina Artmann
Keywords: constructivism; cooperative translation; online cooperation; virtual seminar; e-learning; patent applications; technical translation; online research; learning platform.
Abstract: The following research is focused on a web-based approach to cooperative translation as practiced within the framework of virtual translation seminars. After presenting essential background on cooperative translation and e-learning, we introduce collaborative learning and online communication platforms that make cooperative translation feasible and productive in this unique learning environment. Our study presents the practice of translating general-language texts in a virtual group setting and further illuminates findings of our case study on the technical translation of patents. Special attention is given to the overall translation process and online research as its underlying requirement.
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Article: 2016-03
Article name: Die "üblichen Verdächtigen"? Muster und Strategien der Her-Übersetzung von Kollokationen
Author: Katrin Berty
Keywords: collocations; units of translation; translation strategies; cooperative translation; translation competence; collocation competence. Kollokationen; Übersetzungseinheiten; Übersetzungsstrategien; Kooperatives Übersetzen; Übersetzungskompetenz; Kollokationskompetenz.
Abstract: While the following article takes its bearings from previous translation-related collocation research, it examines for the first time the phenomenon of collocation from the perspective of translating from foreign languages into the mother tongue. After defining collocations as regular but problematic units of translation, the author presents empirical analyses of syntagmatic translation units extracted from learner corpora. The central findings refute existing assumptions about collocations in translation from the foreign language. The author then shows how these findings can be used to derive standard and compensatory translation strategies in connection with collocations. The article concludes by outlining a learning/teaching scenario within the context of "cooperative translation" (Orbán 2008) where these strategies can be applied by prospective translators. In so doing, they can acquire both linguistic and methodic knowledge and gain greater confidence in handling collocations when translating into the mother tongue.
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Article: 2016-02
Article name: Das Wort in der Übersetzung
Authors: Joachim Kornelius and Anja Holderbaum
Keywords: Collocations; translation problems; dictionaries and corpora; translation units Kollokationen; Übersetzungsprobleme; Wörterbücher und Korpora; Übersetzungseinheiten
Abstract: Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, mit welchen kleinesten linguistischen Einheiten der Übersetzer seine Übersetzungstätigkeit beginnt. Es wird gezeigt, dass empirisch belegbar die kleinsten Übersetzungseinheiten untersatzmäßige Größen in Form von Wortgruppen (phrases) sind. Mit diesen verbinden sich dann nachhaltige Übersetzungsprobleme, wenn die Syntagmen mit Worten des gebundenen Sprachgebrauchs mit Kollokationen besetzt sind. Es wird eine Übersetzungspraxis zugrunde gelegt, die sich wissenschaftlich geleitet vollzieht, und hierbei gezeigt, wie der Übersetzer im Kontext einer veränderten elektronischen Hilfsmittelkunde verlässliche Problemlösungen bei der Selektion und Verifikation zielsprachlicher Äquivalente auf der Ebene von Wort, Wortgruppe und Satz herzuleiten vermag.
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Article: 2016-01
Article name: English medical terminology: Word combinations, semantics, and specialized translation
Author: Johannes Akkach
Keywords: Medical terminology, collocations, sentiment analysis, medical translation, database
Abstract: This paper explores English medical terminology and word combinations, their semantic distinctiveness, and their impact on the professional translation of medical texts into German. We present a semi-automated lexical analysis of a large text corpus used to prepare translation projects. Medical word combinations (collocations) in such specialized texts can be examined on a syntagmatic and paradigmatic level. We developed an online database (Medterm Heidelberg) to store and retrieve medical terminology and phraseology for producing high-quality translations.
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Article: 2014-07
Article name: Alumni Activity in Germany and the United States. Heidelberg University as a Case Study
Author: Rita Ciminnisi
Keywords: alumni associations; Heidelberg University; Heidelberg Alumni International; non-profit; higher education; university management Alumni-Vereinigungen; Universität Heidelberg; Heidelberg Alumni International; Non-profit; Hochschulmanagement
Abstract: Alumni activity has become an integral part of the American university system. The majority of higher education institutions, both private and public, have alumni associations or an alumni program of some sort. In stark contrast to this, alumni involvement in Germany is not deeply rooted in higher education. This article explores the beginnings of alumni involvement in the United States, and also seeks answers to why this facet of higher education is still in its infancy in Germany. By taking Heidelberg University as an example, an analysis demonstrates how alumni activity is developing in Germany in comparison with the United States, and outlines the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.
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Article: 2014-06
Article name: Teaching Translation in Cameroon Anglophone High Schools: Challenges for Innovative Pedagogy
Author: Sakwe George Mbotake
Keywords: Translation in foreign language teaching, effective teaching, translation competence, subject competence, transfer competence, professionalization
Abstract: This paper assesses the implementation of the official GCE ‘A’ Level French Language Translation Programme in Anglophone High schools in Cameroon. The teaching of the Translation component has continued to be plagued by problems notwithstanding the publication of an official guide in June 1997. The study demonstrates that a large disparity exists between official course objectives and what is actually taught in the field. Teaching is basically teacher-centered with mechanical translation exercises which lack commentary, reflection and discovery. This reductionist pedagogy is largely responsible for the poor performance in the GCE ‘A’ Level French examination as well as the continuous loss of interest by students in the translation component of this Examination. Data for this study was obtained through the administration of questionnaires to 24 ‘A’ Level French teachers and 171 ‘A’ Level students from 16 high schools in the South West Region of Cameroon, as well as from direct classroom observation. The study posits that the teaching of translation in Anglophone high schools should be relevant to students’ urgent needs and career expectations in the light of competency-based approaches which are in vogue in Cameroon.
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Article: 2014-05
Article name: Lese- und Lernprozesse sprachversierter Akademiker.
Eine empirische Analyse am Beispiel von Übersetzern und Dolmetschern
Author: Jennifer Griese
Keywords: reading; learning; eye-tracking; knowledge acquisition; reading process; translators Lesen; Lernen; Eye-Tracking; Augenbewegung; Wissenserwerb; Leseprozess; Übersetzer
Abstract: The twenty-first century is often seen as the Information Era or the Age of New Media. The massive diversity of media facilitates the acquisition of knowledge, but to succeed in professional life, strong and efficient reading and learning skills are required. Remarkably, translators are impressively skilled at gathering new knowledge about a vast array of divergent and complex topics, a skill that is a prerequisite for creating accurate translations. Thus, research about reading processes needs to comprise studies of the translator’s approach to reading and learning in comparison to approaches of other test subjects.
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Article: 2014-04
Article name: Text Meets Reality: Challenges in Translating Personal Historical Diaries
Author: Kathrin Thanner
Keywords: Translation Challenges, Transcription, Syntax Analysis, Frequency Analysis, Sentiment Analysis, Primary Translation, Secondary Translation, Realia, Historical Diaries
Abstract: Challenges in translating personal historical diaries and methods to deal with these issues will be discussed in this article. These hotspots in translation, such as realia, are tackled with text and content analysis methods. An innovative method called Sentiment Analysis will be introduced to the area of Translation Studies.
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Article: 2014-03
Article name: Kontrastiver Vergleich von Strategien beim Simultandolmetschen
Japanisch-Deutsch und Englisch-Deutsch
Author: Gunnar Kieß
Keywords: Simultaneous interpreting; contrastive analysis; Japanese; English; German; interpreting strategies Simultandolmetschen; vergleichende Analyse; Japanisch; Englisch; Deutsch; Dolmetschstrategien
Abstract: Building upon Yoko Shinohe’s 2012 work on the challenges of simultaneous interpretation from Japanese into German and strategies to cope with them, this paper aims to contrast the peculiarities of Japanese-to-German simultaneous interpretation with those of English-to-German simultaneous interpretation. A Japanese speech and its English translation were interpreted by advanced students, both interpreting from their major foreign language into their mother tongue, thus highlighting the challenges inherent in each of the two language combinations. The paper analyses the translated content with regard to its completeness as well as its truthfulness to the speaker's intended propositions before entering into a more detailed examination of the use and effectiveness of segmentation (chunking) and anticipation strategies in each interpretation. A brief look at interference of source language patterns into the target language concludes the analysis. The findings reconfirm that it is advisable for interpreters to approach each language pair with a conscious choice of strategies.
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Article: 2014-02
Article name: The Hybrid Nature of Literary-Technical Works: Analyses of Selected Texts and an
Approach to Translating in This Twofold Domain
Author: Denise Josey
Keywords: free verse; lyrics; specialized language; database; hybrid texts; technical translation
Abstract: This article focuses on the analyses of selected texts by the artists Gwen Frostic and James Whitcomb Riley. Their works are found to contain a high number of biological terms, which lend themselves to a translation approach that is tailored to both their technical requirements and the literary nature of their works. The article further seeks to analyze the hybrid nature of these literary-technical works and to highlight the importance of a biological database for the production of context-specific target-language terms.
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Article: 2014-01
Article name: Neue Hilfsmittel in der computergestützten Fachübersetzung
Authors: Johannes Akkach and Joachim Kornelius
Keywords: Translation-Memory-Systeme; CAT; Steuerabkommen; Fachsprache; Phraseologie
Abstract: A key feature of Computer-Aided Translation is the integration of reliable, user-friendly tools for efficient terminology research during the translation process. Various ways of integrating external language resources have been evaluated for use in CAT systems. The following paper introduces another approach for easily retrieving and using phraseological data from a terminology database while producing text in the target language.
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Article: 2013-05
Article name: PBL meets Translation – Emigrant Letters as Case Studies
Author: Viktorija Bilic
Keywords: translation process; Problem-Based Learning; emigrant letters; historical letters; immigration to America; Cooperative Translation; Cooperative Text Analysis; Cooperative Research
Abstract: Three innovative approaches to teaching translation are presented in the following article: Cooperative Translation, Cooperative Text Analysis and Cooperative Research. These methods proved to be successful when analyzing and translating historical emigrant letters.
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Article: 2013-04
Article name: Erkundungen in der Patentübersetzung: eine Kooperative Recherche in US-amerikanischen Patentdatenbanken
Authors: Viktorija Bilic and Joachim Kornelius
Keywords: translation; interpreting; patents; cooperative translation; problem-based learning; cooperative research; USPTO. Übersetzen; Dolmetschen; Patente; Kooperatives Übersetzen; Problem Based Learning; Kooperative Wissensrecherche; USPTO.
Abstract: The databases of the United States Patent and Trademark Office provide the materials for a demonstration of how the modern translator can approach and conduct a cooperative and professional search for knowledge, including data-eliciting, documentation and electronic archiving.
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Article: 2013-03
Article name: Amateur subtitling - selected problems and solutions
Author: Mateusz Sajna
Keywords: film translation, subtitles, funsubbing, fansubbing, amateur translators, crowdsourcing
Abstract: Abstract: In the following paper, we shall attempt to characterize the phenomenon of amateur film subtitlers – here called funsubbers – as opposed to anime fansubbers. After the initial explanation of the differences concerning these two types of subtitlers, we shall proceed to the core of the article, namely the analysis of errors made by non-professional translators who render film subtitles. There will be seven groups of errors selected on the basis of eight motion pictures analyzed for this paper. The main objective of the paper will be to indicate the most error-prone areas encountered in the work of amateur subtitlers. Furthermore, certain strategies by which amateurs can overcome subtitle-related problems will also be presented. We shall finish the article with conclusions drawn on the basis of the analysis and the available academic publications and propose a modified version of Hejwowski's translation error typology.
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Article: 2013-02
Article name: Texte der Doppelbesteuerungsabkommen in der CAT-gestützten Übersetzung
Authors: Johannes Akkach and Meike Miller
Keywords: Translation-Memory-Systeme; CAT; Steuerabkommen; Fachsprache; Segmentierung
Abstract: This investigation seeks to establish how effective computer-assisted translation programs (CAT) prove to be when used in the technical translation of tax-related documents, and whether such programs enhance their professional quality. The analyzed documents originated from the OECD-Master Agreement and deal with German-Canadian Double-Taxation (DBA), and thus they appear accordingly in German and in English. The Across CAT-system was selected for its practicality, and was investigated to determine whether it is a feasible option for use in tax-related translations involving complex sentence structures in paragraph form.
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Article: 2013-01
Article name: „Du sollst nicht raten!" Quellen, Methoden und Werkzeuge für eine qualitätsorientierte Terminologie-Recherche
Author: Armin Mutscheller
Keywords: Terminologie; Terminologie-Management; Terminologie-Recherche; Qualität; Meta-Suchmaschinen; kooperatives Terminologie-Management; Rapid On Line Lookup; ROLL terminology; terminology management; terminology research; quality; meta search engines; collaborative terminology management, rapid on line lookup; ROLL
Abstract: This article describes a methodology for quality-oriented terminology research in the translation process as experienced by many freelance and in-house translators. It also describes some of the software tools and Web-based services that are available for conducting terminology research and sharing efficiently.
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Article: 2012-05
Article name: Deutsche und amerikanische Gesten im Kontext des Dolmetschens
Author: Luc Koster
Keywords: Gestures; Germany; USA; interpreting; interpreting students; gesture dictionaries; gesture course; cooperative translation Gesten; Deutschland; USA; Dolmetschen; Dolmetschstudierende; Gestenwörterbuch; Gestenkurs; kooperatives Übersetzen
Abstract: When abroad, most travelers communicate with the locals using both their hands and arms. Yet these gestures can often lead to misunderstandings. Thus, it is imperative for the professional interpreter to carefully consider gestures in order to accurately transmit all elements of an utterance into another language and culture. Remarkably, gestures can be scientifically classified into thirteen groups according to defined parameters: their meaning or function, their relationship to spoken language, and their visual forms. Two distinct corpora were analyzed: first, a movie produced in Germany and another in the United States; and secondly, broadcasts of weather forecasts from both countries. Following these analyses, two separate gesture dictionaries were compiled. Image sequences were created from the gestures observed in the movies, while short videos were made depicting the gestures viewed in the weather broadcasts. Finally, a gesture course was developed in which the differences between American and German gestures can be taught to students in interpreting studies programs according to the principles of cooperative translation, enabling students to solve problems as a group through a continuous interchange of ideas among its members.
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Article: 2012-04
Article name: Maschinelle Übersetzung bei der Volkswagen AG
Author: Jörg Porsiel
Keywords: maschinelle Übersetzung, Terminologiemanagement, kontrollierte Sprache, Datensicherheit, Industriespionage, Bewusstseinsbildung, zielgruppengerechtes Schreiben, übersetzungsgerechtes Schreiben, Cloud-Computing, Crowdsourcing, management of expectations machine translation, terminology management, controlled language, data security, industrial espionage, raising awareness, writing for a target group, writing for translation, cloud computing, crowd sourcing, management of expectations
Abstract: This article describes the use of machine-translation in a global automotive company. Efficient and responsible use of machine translation requires ongoing supportive activities that raise the awareness of these technology users. The objectives of these activities include highlighting the benefits for the individual translator, as well as consistently improving the quality of translation solutions. Further emphasis is placed on the fundamental importance of data security and the often underestimated risks of machine translation in conjunction with online solutions.
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Article: 2012-03
Article name: Herausforderungen und Strategien beim Simultandolmetschen Japanisch-Deutsch
Author: Yoko Shinohe
Keywords: Simultaneous interpreting; Japanese; German; interpreting strategies Simultandolmetschen; Japanisch; Deutsch; Strategien
Abstract: This paper focuses on some essential difficulties that are encountered when interpreting simultaneously from Japanese into German and provides some technical approaches to assist the interpreter. After highlighting typical characteristics of the source language, the study analyses whether and how common interpreting strategies can be applied to this specific language combination.
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Article: 2012-02
Article name: WebCorp Linguist's Search Engine (LSE) - eine übersetzungsbezogene Evaluation
Author: Christian Reske
Keywords: computational linguistics; corpus linguistics; translation of technical texts; usability; evaluation; the web as corpus Computerlinguistik; Korpuslinguistik; technische Übersetzung; Usability; Evaluation; das Web als Korpus
Abstract: The following article is focused on the evaluation of the Linguist's Search Engine (LSE), a web-based corpus created by the Birmingham City University (BCU). Following an introduction of underlying principles and user interface of BCU's LSE, the latter is put to the test and compared with the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), considering the applicability of both corpora in technical translation. Based on a test run using selected terms in English, suggestions for web-based multi-language and translation corpora are provided.
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Article: 2012-01
Article name: Konferenzdolmetschen in fachmedizinischen Kontexten: Eine Umfrage und ihre Ergebnisse
Author: Carola Garth
Keywords: Dolmetschen; Konferenzdolmetschen; Medizin; Umfrage; Analyse, Interpreting; conference interpreting; medicine; survey; analysis
Abstract: Conference interpreters working in the field of medicine participated in an online survey that sought answers to questions relating to the types of texts interpreted, the settings in which they are engaged, and the unique professional challenges that they face. This study describes online surveys and the general types of questions posed in this genre. The specific questions used in this survey provide a narrower focus on medical interpreting and support the conclusion that conference interpreting in a medical context poses no greater challenges than those faced in any other thematic field.
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Article: 2011-09
Article name: "On Clouds and Crowds" - Current Developments in Translation Technology
Author: Frank Austermühl
Keywords: machine translation, statistical machine translation, massive online collaboration, crowdsourcing, social translation, translation wikis. Maschinelle Übersetzung, statistische Ansätze, Crowdsourcing, Übersetzen und soziale Netzwerke, Übersetzungs-Wikis.
Abstract: In this paper, I discuss two recent developments in translation technology - statistical machine translation (MT) and massive online collaboration (MOC) - and their impact on the translation process in general and on the working conditions of individual translators in particular. With regard to machine translation, the presentation will focus on online MT systems and the paradigm of statistical machine translation. With regard to massive online collaboration the presentation will focus on both crowdsourcing and on Wiki resources for translators. I will conclude with potential ways of reacting to the challenges posed by MT and MOC for both translation research and teaching.
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Article: 2011-08
Article name: Translational Variants. Alejo Carpentier's Viaje a la semilla in Cold War Germany: between Magic Realism and Surrealism
Author: Vera Elisabeth Gerling
Keywords: Alejo Carpentier; Latin America; literary translation; colonial discourse; translation strategies; reception strategies; Cold War Alejo Carpentier; Lateinamerika; Literaturübersetzung; Kolonialdiskurs, Übersetzungsstrategien; Rezeptionsstrategien; Kalter Krieg
Abstract: The reception of a text, and therefore its translation as well, is always inevitably influenced by its discursive context and the corresponding interpretative approach. The European reception of Latin American literature is still heavily influenced by the asymmetries established through their former relationship as colonial master and subject. The idea of something "alien" to one's own culture in this case serves as a means of stabilizing one's self-perception. Prior to their reunification this reception has been far from homogenous in the two German states. Using Viaje a la semilla by Alejo Carpentier as an example, the following analysis will depict the underlying inherent interpretations of the translations published in the FRG and the GDR, and examine their relationship to the different reception strategies in East and West Germany.
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Article: 2011-07
Article name: "Christmas in the Senate" - Prolegomena for an English-German Dictionary of American Political Culture
Author: Frank Austermühl
Keywords: translation of political texts; language of politics; political dictionaries; political lexicography; American political culture Übersetzung politischer Texte; Sprache der Politik; politisches Wörterbuch; politische Lexikographie; amerikanische politische Kultur
Abstract: Based on a critical discussion of three case studies in political translation, this articles aims to establish the translational and lexicographical basis for an English-German dictionary of American political culture.
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Article: 2011-06
Article name: Die Recherche und Übersetzung des medizinischen Fachübersetzers und die Darstellung seiner Hilfsmittel
Author: Anna-Katharina Hüging
Keywords: Medical translation; resources in medical translation; screen recording program; process of translation; empirical trials; behavior in translation; behavior in research Medizinische Übersetzung; Hilfsmittel in der medizinischen Übersetzung; Echtzeit-Screenrecording-Programm; Übersetzungsprozess; empirische Versuche; Übersetzungsverhalten; Rechercheverhalten
Abstract: The article explores aspects of preparatory research used in medical translation. This empirical research is conducted using Camtasia, an elaborate screen-recording program. Helpful electronic tools that enable medical translators to standardize and professionalize their work are identified and described. Additionally research attempts to analyze translations prepared by various groups of translators.
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Article: 2011-05
Article name: Die Generierung einer terminologischen Datenbank für Übersetzer und Mediziner
Author: Johannes Akkach
Keywords: Terminology Database; Medical Translation; Online Dictionary; Technical Translation Terminologiedatenbank; Medizinische Übersetzung; Online-Wörterbuch; Fachübersetzung
Abstract: There is a wealth of resources for researching medical terminology available to professional translators on the Internet and in print. Many of these are, however, part of a more comprehensive, general-purpose dictionary with no particular focus on technical language. The scope of such resources is often limited to the decoding of a source language term and not intended to facilitate text production in the target language. Therefore, an online dictionary with extended medical terminology would be a valuable resource both for health professionals and for technical translators. With a standardized and comprehensive terminological structure, such resources can help users to produce complex yet precise wordings in their non-native target language. Examples of useful information for text production include definitions, context sentences and collocations for each term. As part of the research project Teaching Medical Translation at the University of Heidelberg, approximately 78 bachelor students in the class of 2011 extracted medical terminology from case studies provided by the Indiana University School of Medicine, USA, using a predefined template. The present contribution deals with the processing of the collected data to create an online database which will power a web-based dictionary.
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Article: 2011-04
Article name: Über die Herleitung einer webbasierten terminologischen Fachdatenbank
auf der Basis medizinischer Fälle des Problem-Based Learning-Curriculums
Authors: Anne Kimmes and Joachim Kornelius
Keywords: Terminologiedatenbank; Terminologie; medizinische Fachsprache; Problem-Based Learning; B.A.-Arbeiten terminology database; medical terminology; language for specific purposes (LSP); Problem-Based Learning; B.A. theses; translation curriculum
Abstract: This article describes the process of planning and organizing a specialized web-based terminology database on the basis of case reports originally developed for a problem-based medical school curriculum within an instructional unit belonging to the B.A. in Translation Studies curriculum. In this manner, an electronic medical dictionary is to be created within the framework of a large number of identically structured B.A. theses.
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Article: 2011-03
Article name: Vergessen und Übersetzen
Author: Joachim Kornelius
Keywords: Collocations; collocational range; corpus linguistics; electronic dictionary; Kollokationen; Kollokationsradius; Korpuslinguistik; elektronische Wörterbücher; Kooperatives übersetzen; Vergessen
Abstract: This article investigates the specific forms of forgetting that a translator faces in his professional projects, and seeks to establish strategies which can effectively assist the translator in surmounting these daunting mental interferences that obstruct the flow of the translation process.
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Article: 2011-02
Article name: The Translation of Prosody and all that Aggro: A Case Study of Arabic-English Subtitling
Author: Mohammad Ahmad Thawabteh
Keywords: audiovisual translation; subtitling; prosody; linguistic; Arabic; English
Abstract: This paper explores the difficulty of translating prosodic features from Arabic into English, illustrated with two subtitled Egyptian films, Ramadan fawqa il-Burkān and - Amn Dawlah subtitled by Arab Radio and Television into - Ramadan atop the Volcano - and - State Security - respectively. The study shows that Arabic prosodic traits, such as length, rhythm, stress, pitch, intonation, and loudness in speech are difficult to retain on the screen without giving up parts of the semantic and lexical substance. This is perhaps due to the little linguistic affinity existing between English and Arabic (the former is an Indo-European language whereas the latter belongs to the Semitic language family) and also to the translation mode per se (i.e., subtitling) with its transference from spoken to written language, a mode which entails loss of prosodic features. The paper argues that failure to preserve prosodic features may jeopardise intercultural communication unless maximal use of semiotic webs is taken into account. The paper concludes that three strategies are employed, namely (1) avoidance, whereby the original prosodic traits are left undealt with; (2) the replacement of the original prosodic features with a lexical item in the target language; and (3) the use of punctuation marks.
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Article: 2011-01
Article name: The Urbanization of American English in Entertainment and Translation. The Social, Cultural and Linguistic Implications of Chappelle's Show in German.
Author: Anita Williams-Holzhausen
Keywords: African American Vernacular English; AAVE; translation; subtitles; Chappelle's Show; intercultural communication; contextual transmission; Translation Studies
Abstract: The following article examines a seldom addressed, yet growingly pertinent issue in Translation Studies: the usage of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) in entertainment as a form of intercultural communication. Here, the difficulties of accurate contextual transmission in the use of German subtitles will be discussed. Using the popular syndicated television series Chappelle's Show as a practical example, the German subtitles in three sketches from the show will be analyzed for the contextual relevance, the treatment of controversial issues, concepts and language and the transcultural communicability of racial and political satire and references to popular culture in German translation. Furthermore, insights into the authenticity of the portrayal of AAVE in the show will be discussed, as the differentiation between the use of authentic AAVE and unauthentic AAVE will directly affect the quality of the target translations. The contributive value of the syndication of this particular show in Germany will be critiqued, followed by the conclusion that the need for more accuracy and representation of AAVE in German translation becomes increasingly greater as various popular forms of entertainment (e.g. music, cinema and television) which make use of AAVE are being presented to young German audiences, often in accompaniment with inaccurate and misleading German subtitles. In order to improve upon this deficiency, more attention must be paid within Translation Studies to the existence of AAVE as a form of intercultural communication, as well as the need for the education of translators in order to comprehend and accurately translate AAVE.
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Article: 2010-20
Article name: Lakota and Translation Theory - One Phrase - Many Translation Possibilities
Analysis of Selected Translation Examples Lakota - English - German
Authors: Robynne Flynn-Diez and Rebecca Netzel
Keywords: Translation, translation theory, Skopos, culture, Lakota, linguisticsübersetzung, Translationstheorie, Skopos, Kultur, Lakota, Linguistik
Abstract: It has often been assumed that translation (among other activities) involving Native American texts falls into a - special case - status. This designation then perpetuates the already prevalent - exoticizing - of Native cultures. Even in translation studies the question is often posed of whether or not Native texts can be translated. The general translatability of Native texts is not only approached herein but, according to a translator's cultivation of cultural knowledge, linguistics, and translation theory, shown to be quite feasible. Acknowledging translation as fundamentally a communicative act, as well as applying Vermeer's Skopos theory and Katharina Reiss - text functions, assists in demonstrating translation procedures that can yield thoughtful, meaningful, and therefore successful Lakota translations. Given examples include, but are not limited to, the exploration of a popular Lakota song in Lakota, English and German. In the end, it is made increasingly clear that with a genuine interest in and appreciation of culture, aligned with the proper academic background, Lakota texts do not pose unique barriers for translation. Lakota is indeed translatable and poses no further complications than are seen in any source text culturally referenced and enriched by the use of - realia - .
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Article: 2010-19
Article name: Relevanztheorie und übersetzerische Handlungssicherheit
Authors: Andrew Jenkins and Gisela Schwalm
Keywords: Relevance Theory; communication; translation teaching; inference; minimax principle; effort/benefit Relevanztheorie; Kommunikation; Übersetzungsdidaktik; Inferenz; Handlungssicherheit; Minimax-Prinzip; Verhältnis Nutzen/Aufwand
Abstract: The article discusses uses to which central tenets of Relevance Theory can be put in the context of communicatively oriented translation classes (German-English, both ways).
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Article: 2010-18
Article name: Die Bewertung defekter Übersetzungen jenseits des Lacheffekts
Author: Andrew Jenkins
Keywords: communication and correctness; Lasswell Formula; translator responsibility; quality criteria Kommunikation und Korrektheit; Lasswell-Formel; übersetzerische Gesamtverantwortung; Qualitätskriterien
Abstract: The article discusses (partly non-linguistic) assessment criteria for the detailed description of (faulty) translations and their communicative value.
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Article: 2010-17
Article name: Die Übersetzung als Größe des Erkennens
Author: Hanna Sigmann
Keywords: Translation, original text, perceptibility, evaluation criterion, shining through Übersetzung, Originaltext, Erkennbarkeit, Bewertungskriterien, shining through
Abstract: This article presents the findings of an experiment seeking to determine whether competent native speakers of German can distinguish between texts originally composed in German and those translated into German from an English original. The study examines the effects of two variables on this recognition process: 1) participantsâ?? level of specialist expertise (upper-division university students of translation on the one hand and of other major subjects on the other hand), and 2) the mode of reception (reading versus listening). Quantitative results show that none of the participant groups was consistently able to distinguish originals from translations. Participants trained in translation are not significantly better at recognizing translated texts than those without such training. However, participants who read the texts did outperform those who merely listened to them to a significant degree. The article concludes with a discussion of differences between the problematic units focused on by the respective text recipients, as well as possible reasons for the overall failure to distinguish translations from originals.
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Article: 2010-16
Article name: Approche contrastive des difficultes späcifiques á  la traduction medicale de l`allemand vers le francais
Author: Anne-Sophie Seidler
Keywords: traduction médicale; francais; allemand; difficult's; terminologie; syntaxe; medizinische Übersetzung; Französisch; Deutsch; Übersetzungsprobleme; Terminologie; Syntax; medical translation; French; German; difficulties; terminology; syntax
Abstract: En traduisant des textes médicaux de l-allemand vers le francais, le traducteur est confronte non seulement aux problémes de traduction gánérale, mais ágalement des problémes spácifiques á  la traduction médicale. Ces problémes de traduction sont de nature terminologique et syntaxique et sont différents selon que le traducteur est francophone ou germanophone. Cet article a pour but de donner un aperáu concret non exhaustif des difficultás qui jalonnent le parcours du traducteur ou de l'étudiant en traduction médicale.
Each medical translator who works from German into French is confronted with general as well as specific translation problems. These difficulties can be with terminology as well as syntax and are different depending on whether the translator is German or French. The purpose of this article is to provide an empirical insight into these problems, to which medical translators and medical translation students are perpetually confronted during their career.
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Article: 2010-15
Article name: Zur Entstehung eines Wörterbuchs der mittelalterlichen medizinischen (Fach-)sprache
Author: Jörg Riecke
Keywords: Medizinische Fachsprache; Frühgeschichte; Textsorten; Lexikologie; Lexikographie; Semantische Netzwerke; Medical language; ancient history; text types; lexicology; lexicography; semantic networks
Abstract: Early writings about the human body, its illnesses and their cures are among the oldest collections of texts recorded in European vernacular languages. In the German-speaking areas these beginnings date back to the Early Middle Ages. The focus of this article will be on addressing which possibilities were available to medieval authors, in their vernaculars, for the acquisition and transmission of medical knowledge. A majority of these first cases of medical translation begin with texts in the scientific language of Latin and then move into the target language Old High German. The results of these complex, multilayered translation procedures found entry into a dictionary of the â??Early History of Medieval Medical Language in German,â? which will be introduced here. This will offer insight, from a historical perspective, into different interpretations of illness, recovery and health as could be encountered today in the translation and interpretation of texts from divergent cultural backgrounds.
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Article: 2010-14
Article name: Using the Knowledge of the Crowd: Internet-Based Experiments on Collocation Translation
Author: Christian Grauer
Keywords: collocation, translation, screen recording, empirical analysis, crowdsourcing; Kollokation, Übersetzung, Bildschirmaufnahme, empirische Analyse, Crowdsourcing
Abstract: This research focuses on the Internet and the possibilities it offers for improving the translation process, and particularly for translating collocations. Linguee is introduced as a useful search engine for translators. Camtasia Studio, a screen-recording tool, enabled the researcher to observe university-level translation studies students as they translated texts online. Results from this study indicate that students tend to use a limited number of online resources and generally do not take adequate advantage of the assistance offered by the Internet.
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Article: 2010-13
Article name: Mach doch mal Licht - die Produktivität von machen als Kollokator im intersprachlichen Vergleich
Authors: Kerstin Brenner and Anja Holderbaum
Keywords: Kollokationen, Kontrastivität, Kollokationsverstäße; Korpusanalyse; medizinische Fachsprache; medizinische Internetforen; Produktivität von Kollokatoren
Abstract: Collocations constitute a typical problem unit in foreign-language text production, where the problematic part is finding the appropriate collocator. In language for both special purposes and general purposes, unspecific verbs prove to be frequent collocational partners. The most productive verbal collocator in German has been determined to be the verb machen, which often cannot be substituted by any other verb. In the present contribution, the collocators machen and to make will be investigated in a corpus-based and contrastive approach. This will be followed by a consideration of the widespread medical collocations Schmerzen machen (to cause pain) and Beschwerden machen (to cause symptoms/complaints), including examples to illustrate register-specific particularities as well as the mutability and dynamic development of collocational usage.
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Article: 2010-12
Article name: Oftmals trügt der Schein: Bemessungen des collocational range
und ihre Bedeutung für die Übersetzungspraxis
Authors: Anne Kimmes and Joachim Kornelius
Keywords: Collocations; collocational range; corpus linguistics; electronic dictionary Kollokationen; Kollokationsradius, Korpuslinguistik; elektronische Wörterbücher
Abstract: Collocations are a well-known stumbling block when translating or simply writing text in a foreign language. The oft-repeated examples in the current literature have created the impression that every collocational base can only be combined with a very limited number of collocators. In the following, this assumption is refuted on an empirical basis. The two most relevant collocation dictionaries of the English language contain a total of 103 different collocations of the noun anger. It is surprising, however, that less than 20% of the two dictionaries - contents is identical for this lemma, with only 19 of these 103 collocations being listed in both reference works. There is therefore reasonable doubt not only concerning the completeness of these collocation lists but also concerning the quality of the linguistic material altogether. The analysis of a newspaper corpus consisting of more than 37 million words revealed 885 different combinations for the collocational base anger. In purely statistical terms, the list of possible collocators can never be completed. That is to say, when an even larger text corpus is analyzed, new possible collocators appearing for the first time in the corpus will be permanently added to the list. The differentiation between collocations and free combinations plays only a subordinate role in this case as language users are only concerned about expressing themselves idiomatically in the foreign tongue. In order to verify their selection in the syntagmatic dimension - that is to say finding an appropriate collocator to a given base - translators or foreign language users in general have a pressing need for efficient electronic tools in the field of collocations.
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Article: 2010-11
Article name: COLLOCATION│ANALYZER - An Electronic Tool for Collocation Retrieval and Verification
Authors: Anne Kimmes and Hilko Koopman
Keywords: collocations; word combinations; British Contextualism, London School of Linguistics, translation; electronic dictionary; electronic reference tool; corpus. Kollokationen; Wortkombinationen; Britischer Kontextualismus; London School of Linguistics; Übersetzung; elektronisches Wörterbuch; Hilfsmittel; Korpus.
Abstract: Collocations cause considerable difficulties to anyone who wants to produce texts in a foreign language. Based on theories of collocations developed by John Rupert Firth and Franz Josef Hausmann, we will show that the current reference works do not satisfactorily provide help in the field of collocations. For this reason, we developed an application called COLLOCATION │ANALYZER to fill this market gap with a user-friendly electronic tool for collocation retrieval and verification. COLLOCATION│ANALYZER allows the user to perform various tasks: retrieving unknown collocations; verifying tentatively available collocations; comparing collocations of semantically similar bases; viewing contextual examples; sorting and filtering the results in a number of different ways; as well as looking up words in the renowned Merriam-Webster online dictionary and thesaurus directly from within the application.
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Article: 2010-10
Article name: Integrating Multi-Word Terms in Terminology Management Systems: A Case Study
Author: Nicole Keller
Keywords: terminology management system; multi-word term; single-word term; collocation; terminology recognition; terminology check.Terminologieverwaltungssysteme; Mehrwortermini; Einworttermini; Kollokation; Terminologieerkennung; Terminologieprüfung.
Abstract: Terminology work in CAT-tool-integrated terminology systems has developed to become a key component of the translation process. The case study described in this article will focus on the reliability of automatic term recognition during the translation process in the editors of computer-aided translation tools. Using excerpts from medical texts as an example of technical texts, we tested the storage possibilities for, as well as term recognition and the final terminology check of, single-word and multi-word terms. As a
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Article: 2010-09
Article name: A Collaborative Approach to the Teaching of Terminology Management
Author: Frank Austermühl
Keywords: terminography; terminology management; technical translation; collaborative learning; teamwork; concept systems.
Abstract: In this article, we aim to present a basic collaborative didactic proposal for the integration of terminology skills into the training of professional translators, focusing on a project-oriented and concept-system-based approach to translation-oriented terminography. To do so, we will first identify and define the main concepts from the discipline of terminology. Secondly, we will highlight the main elements of the important relationship between terminology, specialized communication, and specialized translation. Thirdly, we will specifically focus on the concept
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Article: 2010-08
Article name: Images of Translators in Localization Discourse
Authors: Frank Austermühl and Christine Mirwald
Keywords: localization industry; localization discourse; translator images; corpus analysis.
Abstract: This article aims to determine the image of professional translators in the localization industry. Based on a corpus consisting of white papers published by leading industry representatives and applying mainly quantitative analysis methods, we identify an increasing degree of industrialization within the language services market. The consequence of this development is a marginalization of the translator within professional translation processes. This image of the translator projected in industry discourses of localization is in stark contrast to the one that has been established by Translation Studies.
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Article: 2010-07
Article name: The Conceptual Mapping Model in Consecutive Interpreting Teaching
Author: Ying Jin
Keywords: Interpreting Studies; interpreter training; cognitive psychology; performance; mental workload.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the theory of how to reduce and focus cognitive overload in consecutive interpreting. Within the framework of Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson 1986), a cognitive approach has been adopted to build a conceptual mapping model, which (1) differentiates cognitive abilities from language-related interpreting skills, (2) explains a hierarchy of cognitive constructs (known as \'main concepts\' and \'minor concepts\'), and (3) suggests three working strategies to optimize the interpreter\'s limited cognitive processing resources. Consecutive interpreters are encouraged to allocate their attentional resources given to information processing by using filtering (attention to main concepts of speaker\'s discourse), rearranging (using a layered schema of concepts) and reproducing (using linguistically clear, audience-oriented structures to reproduce concepts).
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Article: 2010-06
Article name: Brave New Wor(l)ds: Translation, Standardization and the Reshaping of a Professional Profile in the Language Industry
Author: Fernando Ferreira-Alves
Keywords: translation industry; professional profile; GILT industry; training; standardization.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the role of translator training from a professional point of view by looking at some of the ways through which internationalization strategies and standardization policies are embedded in translation discourse and reflected in professional practice via a politically-correct, standards-based, quality-oriented approach which is tuned in to the requirements of the language industry. It analyzes the increasing standardization found in the translation industry, investigating the impact of the new EN 15038 standard for translation services, and demonstrates how this standard is representative of the changes taking place, as well as how such standards affect translator training.
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Article: 2010-05
Article name: Towards a Transgressionist Approach: Critical-Reflexive Translator Education
Authors: Stefan Baumgarten and Konrad Klimkowski
Keywords: translation pedagogy; Translation Studies; social constructivism; scaffolding.
Abstract: After briefly introducing relevant language pedagogies and translation studies approaches, this paper explores the possibilities offered by Kiraly\'s (2000) theory of empowerment-oriented translation pedagogy. First, some theoretical investigations into Kiraly\'s social constructivist model are presented. The model is then expanded to include the concept of transgressionism. Such a concept is employed in order to make Kiraly\'s notion of scaffolding more dynamic and also to clarify some uncertainties surrounding the transformationist approach. We then proceed to illustrate these theoretical concepts with practical examples of how empowerment-oriented solutions have been applied in multicultural settings.
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Article: 2010-04
Article name: Reading Comprehension of L2 Medical Texts: Steps, Structures, and Strategies
Author: John Stewart
Keywords: reading comprehension; language for special purposes; medical translation; sentence parsing; discourse comprehension; superstructures; LSP reading strategies
Abstract: This paper combines ideas from the literature on natural language parsing at the clause/sentence level with studies of reading comprehension at the larger discourse level in order to arrive at a holistic view of the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in comprehending written LSP texts in the field of medicine. The already somewhat
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Article: 2010-03
Article name: Innovative Bewertungsmethoden in einem PBL-basierten Lehr- und Lernkontext - das Übersetzungsprojekt als exemplarischer Fall
Author: Wencke Orban
Keywords: Problem Based Learning; Kooperatives Übersetzen; Leistungsbeurteilung; Bewertungsmethoden; Prüfungssystem; formative / summative Bewertung; Lernerfolg; Ausbildungszielbezogenheit; Inhaltsvalidität; Übersetzungsprojekt
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Article: 2010-02
Article name: Eine Notationstechnik für den Übersetzungsvergleich
Author: Wencke Orban
Keywords: Notationssystem; Transkriptionsverfahren; Annotationstechniken; Partiturschreibweise; Übersetzungsvergleich; Übersetzungseinheiten; Übersetzungsvarianten; Übersetzungsanalyse
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Article: 2010-01
Article name: Cooperative Translation in the Paradigm of Problem-Based Learning
Authors: Joachim Kornelius and John Stewart
Keywords: constructivism; cooperative translation; learning theories; problem-based learning; Translation Studies programs; translation teams.
Abstract: The following contribution presents an innovative approach to Translation Studies pedagogyâ??and potentially, to the practice of professional translation. The method, known simply as cooperative translation, takes a sharp departure from the traditional model of a solitary translator working in isolation. Texts are instead translated in small peer groups, with the resulting benefits of an intersubjective dynamic, process-integrated quality control, improved motivation and other affective factors, as well as, in many cases, a superior final product. After presenting some background, briefly characterizing the classroom methods prevailing in many university programs in Translation Studies and relevant contemporary trends in higher education, the cooperative translation method is described, with concrete examples and empirical data to illustrate how such collaborative work proceeds in real time. This is followed by a discussion of the method\'s advantages and the most suitable conditions for its application, concluding with some prospects for its use in both educational programs and professional practice.
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